How to Copy Programs. A Beginners Primer. BY THE THREE MUSKETEERS

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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% How to Copy Programs. A Beginners Primer. BY THE THREE MUSKETEERS %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Copy a program is a minor technique easily mastered. The major problem with copying a program is figuring out how it is protected, this is obvious. To see how a disk is protected, first listen to the drive as it boots up the disk. Be prepared to know what a normal boot sounds like, then check for any differences. If you hear a "swishing" or "syncopated rhythm" the disk is proboably using nibble counting. A procedure in which the number of "nibbles" on a disk is compared to the number actually put on at the company. Strange, as it may seem, a disk with the same information with another disk have differ- ent number of nibbles. If this is found, finding the track is usually easy. It is normally a track that cannot be copied easily for it usually only has a series of one number on the entire track, which nibble copiers tend to be quite irritated at. To copy that track use the option for nibble counting. LS 5.0, EDD 1,2, &3, NA ][ vA,vB,vC, Copy ] all have an option on the menu to "keep" or "preserve" the nibble count. Others like LS 4.1 have parameters to change. (LS 4.1 = 4C=1B). Another common scheme is to Syncronize the tracks. That is, to place the sectors on one track in a special relationship with another sector on a separate track. The sound of this is an unusually long time on a track. It sounds like a "swinging pendulum" as it goes from track to track. All copy programs have an option to Sync Tracks. Just choose it. Other techniques involve changing headers (track starts and data starts) and ending data. Use a "Nibble Editor" to inspect the original disk. You will see, usually plainly, a series of FF's or FE's or some other number (not 96's though...) hese are called Sync Bytes. They tell the program to get ready to receive data. The next bytes are called the header bytes. They tell the computer what track, sector, and volume of the sector. The first three bytes are the start bytes. They tell the computer that this is the Start of Actual Information. Normally they are D5 AA 96. They may be changed. If they are changed, enter the data into the copy program. Usually through parms. although some copiers (one is NA ][ ) can enter it from a menu. Later in the data you will see a smaller series of the same Sync Bytes. They are there as a delay. Next comes three more bytes to show that data is next. They are normally D5 AA AD. If changed, enter the altered bytes into the copier. These are most of the techinques that are used. But do NOT forget that just a normal run might work. As homework, try to see the headers in a normal DOS 3.3 disk. Have Fun and Success A.S.R. ---------------------------------------

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