BABEL: A LISTING OF COMPUTER ORIENTED ABBREVIATIONS A

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UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU UU UU UU BABEL: A LISTING OF UU UU COMPUTER ORIENTED ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS UU UU UU UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Version 92A UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Copyright (c) 1989-1992 Irving Kind All Rights Reserved Compiled when I became frustrated while reading magazine articles, help wanted ads and equipment for sale brochures....all pertaining to computers....where the following Abbreviations and Acronyms were used and their meanings were either not known to me or were not immediately available. I have actually seen these combinations of letters used at one time or another in magazines, newspapers or handbooks. They apply to personal computers, mainframes, communications, programming, networking, etc......you name it. This list is free for anyone to use, but with no guarantees as to its completeness. That is why I am now requesting your help. Look over the definitions and let me have your feedback. If you can fill in any of the blanks that I have questioned; or, if you have ever seen letter combinations that you also did not understand, please drop me a note at the address below. Also if you find any errors, obsolete information or can suggest any additions or deletions, they will be most welcome. If you can help, my thanks in advance. In the meantime, print out a copy of this list and keep it on your desk. I know you will find it useful. Updates to this listing will be issued three times a year; in January, May and September. You may download the latest version of BABEL from your favorite Bulletin Board. If any Bulletin Board SYSOP, Computer Club Librarian, Organization or Teacher sends me a formatted disk with a disk mailer, stamped with return postage, I will return the disk with the latest updated version of BABEL at no charge. See end of listing for additional information about updates. Letter groups followed with " * " were used before 1965. At some of these, I have noted historical information. And please remember to ECAL. Irving Kind c/o K & D One Church Lane Baltimore, MD 21208 Jan 1992 version = BABEL92A Jan 1993 version = BABEL93A May 1992 version = BABEL92B May 1993 version = BABEL93B Sep 1992 version = BABEL92C Sep 1993 version = BABEL93C UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU UU UU UU BABEL: A LISTING OF UU UU COMPUTER ORIENTED ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS UU UU UU UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Version 92A UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Copyright (c) 1989-1991 Irving Kind All Rights Reserved AA Auto Answer AAP Applications Access Point [DEC] AASP ASCII Asynchronous Support Package AAT Average Access Time ABEND Abnormal End ABIOS Advanced BIOS ABS Absolute ABT Abort AC Automatic Computer + Alternating Current ACC Accumulator ACD Automated Call Distribution ACE Advanced Computing Environment [SCO] ACF Access Control Field ACK Acknowledgment ACMS Application Control Management System ACP Ancillary Control Program + Auxillary Control Process ACROSS Automated Cargo Release and Operations Service System ACS Access + Access Control Set + Access Control System + Asynchronous Communication Server ACU Automatic Calling Unit A/D Analog to Digital ADA Automatic Data Acquisitions + (Programming Language named after Agusta Ada Lovelace) ADC Add with Carry + Analog to Digital Converter ADCCP Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures ADF Automatic Document Feed ADL Address Data Latch ADLAT Adaptive Lattice Filter .ADN Add In Utility (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] ADP Automatic Data Processing ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation ADR Address ADS Application Development System + Automatic Distribution System ADSC Address Status Changed ADSR Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release ADT Application Data Types ADU Automatic Dialing Unit AE Above or Equal AEB Analog Expansion Bus [Dialogic] AF Auxilary carry Flag AFC Automatic Font Change AGC Automatic Gain Control AI Analog Input + Artificial Intelligence AIA Applications Integration Architecture [DEC] AIIM Association for Information and Image Management AISB Association of Imaging Service Bureaus AISP Association of Information Systems Professionals AIX Advanced Interactive Executive [IBM] ALC Arithmetic and Logic Circuits + Automatic Level Control ALE Address Latch Enable ALGOL Algorithmic Language (see IAL) ALR Advanced Logic Research, Inc. ALT Alternate (mode) ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit AMD Advanced Micro Devices AMMA Advanced Memory Management Architecture [Everex Systems] ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance ANI Automatic Number Identification ANOVA Analysis Of Variance ANSI American National Standard Institute AO Analog Output AOE Application Operating Environment [AT&T] AOS Add Or Subtract AP Adjunct Processor + Application Processor A/P Accounts Payable APA Arithmetic Processing Accelerator + All Points Addressable APAREN Address Parity Enable [IBM] APCUG Association of PC User Groups API Application Program Interface + Application Programming Interface APL A Programming Language (Mathematics) .APP Application (file name extension) [R:Base] APPC Advanced Program-to-Program Communication APPN Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking [IBM] APSE ADA Programming Support Environment APT Address Pass Through + Automatically Programmed Tools A/R Accounts Receivable .ARC Archive (file name extension) ARCA Advanced RISC Computing Architecture ARL Adjusted Ring Length ARLL Advanced Run Length Limited ARM Asynchronous Response Mode ARMA Association of Records Managers and Administrators ARP Address Resolution Protocol [Novell] ARPL Adjust Requested Privilege Level ARTIC A Real-Time Interface Copressor [IBM] ARQ Automatic Repeat Request ARU Audio Response Unit ASAP As Soon As Possible + Automatic Switching And Processing .ASC ASCII text (file name extension) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit ASIT Advanced Security and Identification Technology .ASM Assembler Source Language (file name extension) ASP Association of Shareware Professionals ASPS Advanced Signal Processing System ASR Automatic Send-Receive + Automatic Speech Recognition ASYNC Asynchronous AT Advanced Technology + Attention ATA AT Bus Attachment ATDP Attention Dial Pulse ATDT Attention Dial Tone ATE Automated Test Equipment ATG Advanced Technology Group ATH Attention Hang-Up ATM Adobe Type Manager + Asynchronous Transfer Mode + Automated Teller Machine ATR Automatic Terminal Recognition ATS Administrative Terminal System + Apple Terminal Services AT&T American Telephone and Telegraph ATTN Attention ATTRIB Attribute (also ATR) AUDIT Automated Data Input Terminal AUI Attached Unit Interface AUTO Automatic AUX Auxiliary + (First Serial Port) AVA Audio Visual Authoring [IBM] AVC Audio Visual Connection [IBM] AVG Average AVI Audio Visual Interleaved [Microsoft] AX Architecture Extended + Automatic Transmission BAK Binary Adaption Kit [Microsoft] .BAK Backup (file name extension) BAL Basic Assembly Language BAM Boyan Action Module BARTS Bell Atlantic Regional Timesharing .BAS Basic Language (file name extension) BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code .BAT Batch Processing (file name extension) BBS Bulletin Board System BCD Binary Coded Decimal BCL Batch Command Language BCPL Basic Computer Programming Language BCR Byte Count Register BDOS Basic Disk Operating System BE Below or Equal BEL Bell BELLCORE Bell Communications Research BF Bad Flag B/F Background/Foreground BGE Branch if Greater or Equal .BGI Borland Graphic Interface (file name extension) BGT Branch if Greater Than BHI Branch if Higher BHIS Branch if Higher or Same BI Binary Input .BIB Bibliography (file name extension) BIM Beginning of Information Marker .BIN Binary (file name extension) BINAC * Binary Automatic Computer BIOS Basic Input/Output System BIS Business Information System BiSYNC (See BSYNC) BIT Binary digit BIX Byte Information Exchange (BBS) .BK! Backup (file name extension) [WordPerfect] BKSP Backspace BL Backlit BLAST Blocked Asynchronous Transmission (protocol) [Communications Research Group] .BLD BASIC Bload Graphics (file name extension) BLE Branch if Less or Equal BLK Block BLMC Buried Logic Macrocell BLOB Binary Large Object BLOS Branch if Lower Or Same BMI Branch if Minus BMIC BusMaster Interface Controller [Intel] BMP Batch Message Processing Program .BMP Bitmap (file name extension) [Windows] BNE Branch if Not Equal BO Binary Output BOM Beginning Of Message BORPQU Borland Pro Quattro BORQU Borland Quattro BOS Basic Operating System BOT Beginning Of Table + Beginning of Tape BP Base Pointer BPB BIOS Parameter Block BPI Bits Per Inch BPL Branch if Plus BPS Bits Per Second + Bytes Per Second BR Bad Register BRI Basic Rate Interface + Brain Response Interface BSAM Basic Sequential Access Method BSC Binary Synchronous Communication .BSC Boyan Script (file name extension) [Boyan Communications] BSCS Bachelor of Science (Degree) in Computer Science BSD Berkely Standard Distribution BSF Bit Scan Forward BSI British Standards Institute BSR Bit Scan Reverse BSV BASIC Bsave Graphics (file name extension) BSY Busy BSYNC Binary Synchronous Communications (protocol) BT Bit Test BTAM Basic Telecommunications Access Method [IBM] BTC Bit Test and Complement BTP Batch Transfer Program BTR Bit Test and Reset BTS Bit Test and Set BUF Buffer BWM Block-Write Mode BYTE Binary Element String C C Programming Language .C C source code (file name extension) [C] CA Collision Avoidance CAD Computer Aided Design CADD Computer Aided Design and Drafting CAE Common Applications Environment + Computer Aided Engineering CAG Column Address Generator CAI Computer Aided Instruction CAL Calendar + Computer Aided Learning CAM Common Access Method + Computer Aided Manufacturing + Contents Addressable Memory CAN Cancel CAP Central Arbitration Point + Computer Aided Publishing CAPD Computing To Assist Persons With Disabilities [Johns Hopkins University] CAPS Capitals (Upper Case Letters) + Cassette Programming System CAS Column Address Select + Communicating Applications Specification + Computer Aided Styling CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering CASL Crosstalk Application Scripting Language [DCA] CASS Computer Assisted Search Service CASSIS Classified and Search Support Information System CAT Computer Aided Testing + Computer Aided Tomography + Computer Aided Transcription + Concatenate .CAT Catalog (file name extension) CATV Community Antenna Television CAV Constant Angular Velocity CBCR Channel Byte Count Register CBL Computer Based Learning .CBL COBOL source code (file name extension) CBT Computer Based Training CBW Convert Byte to Word CBX Computer-Controlled Branch Exchange CC Cluster Controller CCD Charged-Coupled Device CCFT Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube CCITT Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone CCP Console Command Processor CCS Common Communications Support CD Carrier Detect + Change Directory + Collision Detection + Color Display + Compact Disk C/D Control Data CDA Compound Document Architecture [DEC] CDC Control Data Corporation CD_CHRDY Card Channel Ready [IBM] CDE Complex Data Entry .CDF Comma Delimited Format (file name extension) CD-I Compact Disk - Interactive CDOS Concurrent Disk Operating System CDL Computer Design Language CD-RDx Compact Disk - Read Only Memory Data Exchange Standard CD-ROM Compact Disk - Read Only Memory CDR Call Detail Record + Call Detail Recording CDRL Contract Data Requirements List CD-RTOS Compact Disk - Real Time Operating System CDS Current Directory Structure CD-V Compact Disk - Video CE Cache Enable + Chip Enable + Collision Elimination + Convert Enable CEG Continuous Edge Graphic CEI Conducted Electromagnetic Interference .CFG Configuration (file name extension) CGA Color Graphics Adapter CGI Computer Generated Images + Computer Graphics Interface .CGM Computer Graphics Metafile (file name extension) + Graph (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] CHAR Character CHCK Channel Check CHGRP Change Group .CHK CHKDSK (file name extension) CHKDSK Check Disk CHMOD Change Mode CHOWN Change Owner CHP Chapter CHR Character CICS/VS Customer Information Control System/ Virtual Storage [IBM] CIM CompuServe Information Manager + Computer Integrated Manufacturing CIOCS Communication Input/Output Control System CIP Command Interface Port CIRC Circular Reference CIS CompuServe Information Service + Computer Information Systems CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer CKD Count Key Data (device) CLAR Channel Local Address Register CLC Clear Carry Flag CLD Clear Direction Flag CLI Clear Interrupt Flag + Command Line Interface CLIST Command List CLK Clock CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol .CLP Clipboard (file name extension) [Windows] CLS Clear Screen CLTS Clear Task Switch Flag CLV Constant Linear Velocity CM Centimeter + Control Mark + Corrective Maintenance CMA Concert Multi-thread Architecture CMC Communication Mangement Configuration + Complement Carry Flag .CMD Command (file name extension) CMIP Common Management Information Protocol CMIS Common Management Information System CML Current Mode Logic CMMU Cache/Memory Management Unit [Motorola] CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor CMP Compare + Computer CMPS Compare word String CMS Code Management System + Compiler Monitor System + Conversation Monitor System CMY Cyan-Magenta-Yellow (color model) CMYK Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black (color model) CNC Computerized Numerical Control .CNF Configuration (file name extension) CNG Calling (tone) CNVT Convert CO Central Office + Command Output + Convert Out .COB COBAL source code (file name extension) COBOL Common Business-oriented Language (See HLL) .COD Code List (file name extension) CODASYL * Conference on Data System Languages (Group that designed COBOL) COEM Commercial Original Equipment Manufacturer COGO Coordinate Geometry (Programming Language) COL Computer Oriented Language .COM Command (file name extension) COMDEX Computer Dealers Exposition COM1 First serial Port (asynchronous port) COM2 Second serial Port COM3 Third serial Port COM4 Fourth serial Port COMP Compare + Communications COMSAT Communications Satellite Corporation CON Console (includes Keyboard and Screen) CONFIG Configuration COS Compatible Operating System COSMOS Computer System for Mainframe Operations CP Copy Protected CPA Certified Public Accountant CPE Central Processing Element + Customer Premise Equipment + Customer Provided Equipment CPG Clock Pulse Generator CPI Characters Per Inch + Clock Per Instruction + Common Programming Interface [IBM] .CPI Code Page Information (file name extension) [MS-DOS] CPL Current Privilege Level CP/M Control Program for Microcomputers CPS Characters Per Second + Cycles Per Second CPT Command Pass Through CPU Central Processing Unit CR Carriage Return CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check CRF Cross Reference File CR/LF Carriage Return/Line Feed CROM Control Read Only Memory CRT Cathode Ray Tube CRTC CRT Controller CS Chip Select + Clear to Send + Code Segment CSAR Channel System Address Register CSG Constructive Solid Geometry + Consulting Services Group [Lotus] CSL Computer Sensitive Language CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access CSP Commercial Subroutine Package + CompuCom Speed Protocol [CompuCom] CSTA Computer-Supported Telephony Applications C&T Chips and Technologies CTOS Computerized Tomography Operating System CTPA Coax-to-Twisted-Pair Adapter CTRL Control CTS Clear To Send CTSS * Compatible Time Sharing System CUA Common User Access [IBM] CUB Cursor Backward CUD Cursor Down CUF Cursor Forward CUI Common User Interface [IBM] CUP Cursor Position CUPID Completely Universal Processor I/O Design [AST] .CUR Cursor (file name extension) CUU Cursor Up CVGA Color Video Gaphics Array CVIA Computer Virus Industry Association CWD Convert Word to Double Word CYL Cylinder CYMK Cyan-Yellow-Magenta-Black (color model) D/A Digital to Analog DAA Data Access Arrangement + Decimal Adjust for Addition DAC Digital to Analog Converter DAL Data Access Language [Apple Computer] + Disk Access Lockout DAM Data Acquisition and Monitoring DAP Data Access Protocol [DEC] DAS Decimal Adjust for Subtraction DASD Direct Access Storage Device DAT Digital Audio Tape .DAT Data (file name extension) DATACOM Data Communications .DBF Database (file name extension) DB Data Base + Data Buffer DBM Data Base Manager DBMS Data Base Management System DBS Data Base Server DB2 Database 2 DC Data Collection + Data Communication + Data Control + Device Control + Direct Current DCA Digital Communications Associates + Document Content Architecture DCAF Distributed Console Access Facility [IBM] DCB Disk Coprocessor Board [Novell] DCC Display Combination Code DCD Data Carrier Detect DCE Data Communications Equipment + Distributed Computing Environment [OSF] + Distributed Computing Equipment DCF Data Communication Facility [IBM] + Data Count Field [IBM] DCL Declaration + DEC Command Language [DEC] + Device Clear + Digital Control Logic + Digital Command Language [Digital] DCS Data Collection System + Data Control System .DCT Dictionary (file name extension) DD Day + Digital Display + Double Density DDD Direct Distance Dialing DDE Direct Data Entry + Dynamic Data Exchange [Microsoft] DDEML Dynamic Data Exchange Management Library [Microsoft] DDL Data Definition Language + Data Description Language DDM Distributed Data Management DDS Design Data Sheet + Digital Data Storage DEC Decrement + Device Clear + Digital Equipment Corporation .DEF Definitions + Defaults (file name extensions) DEL Delete .DEM Demonstration (file name extension) DES Data Encryption Standard + Data Entry Sheet .DES Description (file name extension) DET Device Execute Trigger DEV Device DF Data Field + Destination Field + Device Flag + Double Flag DFC Data Flow Control DFS Distributed File System DFT Diagnostic Funtion Test + Discrete Fourier Transform + Distributed Function Terminal DFU Data File Utility DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard DI Data In + Destination Index DIA Document Interchange Architecture [IBM] DIBOL DEC Business Oriented Language .DIC Dictionary (file name extension) DID Direct Inward Dialing DIF Data Interchange Format DIFFSENS Differential Sense DIIP Direct Interrupt Identification Port DIN Deutsche Industrie Norm (German equivalent of EIA) DIO Data Input-Output DIP Dual In-line Package DIR Directory (file) DIS Dynamic Impedance Stabilization [CompuCom] DISP Displacement (offset) DIV Divide DIW D-Inside Wire [AT&T] DL Download DL/1 Data Manipulation Language 1 [IBM] DLC Data Link Control (protocol) [IBM] DLE Data Link Escape DLL Dynamic Link Library DLR DOS LAN Requester DMA Direct Memory Access DMAC DMA Controller DME Distributed Management Environment DML Data Manipulation Language DMM Digital Multimeter DMMS Dynamic Memory Management System DMOS Double-diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor DMP Dot Matrix Printer DMS Data Management Software + Data Management System DMY Day Month Year DN Down DNC Direct Numerical Control DNIS Dialed Number Identification Service DNS Domain Naming System DO Data Out .DOC Document + Documentation (file name extensions) DOS Disk Operating System DOW Day Of Week DP Data Processing DPA Demand Protocol Architecture [3Com] DPAREN Data Parity Enable [IBM] DPB Drive Parameter Block DPC Direct Program Control DPI Dots Per Inch DPL Descriptor Privilege Level DPM Digital Panel Meter DPMA Data Processing Management Association DPMI DOS Protected Mode Interface [Microsoft] DR Data Received D/R Direct or Reverse DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory DRAW Direct Read After Write DRDA Distributed Relational Data Architecture [IBM] DRDW Direct Read During Write DRI Digital Research Incorporated DRO Data Request Output + Destructive Read-Out .DRS WordPerfect Driver Resource (file name extension) DRV Drive .DRV Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see .DVR) .DRW Draw + Drawing (file name extensions) DS Data Segment + Data Send + Data Server + Double Sided DSDD Double Sided, Double Density (diskette) DSE Data Storage Equipment DSEA Display Station Emulation Adapter DSECT Dummy Control Section DSHD Double Sided, High Density (diskette) DSL Dynamic Simulation Language DSP Digital Signal Processing + Digital Signal Processor DSQD Double Sided, Quad Density (diskette) DSR Data Set Ready + Device Status Register + Device Status Report DSS Decision Support System DSTN Double Supertwisted Nematic DSW Data Status Word + Device Status Word D2T2 Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer (printing) DTA Disk Transfer Area .DTA Data (file name extension) DTE Data Terminal Equipment + Dumb Terminal Emulator DTL Diode-Transistor Logic DTMF Dual Tone Multifrequency DTP Desktop Publishing DTR Data Terminal Ready + Data Transfer Rate DU Disk Usage .DV DESQview Script (file name extension) DVI Digital Video Interactive .DVR Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see .DRV) DWG Drawing .DXB Drawing Interchange Binary (file name extension) [AutoCAD] DXC Data Exchange Control DXF Drawing Interchange Format EA Extended Attribute [OS/2] EAROM Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory EARS Electronic Access to Reference Services EATA Enhanced AT Bus Attachment EBC EISA Bus Controller EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code [IBM] EBI Equivalent Background Input + Extended Background Investigation EBT Electronic Benefits Transfer ECAL Enjoy Computing And Learn ECC Error Check Code + Error Checking and Correction + Error Correction Code ECD Enhanced Color Display ECL Emitter Coupled Logic ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association ED Erase Display EDA Embedded Document Architecture [Go Corporation] EDC Error Detection and Correction EDDC Extended Distance Data Cable EDI Electronic Data Interchange + Electronic Document Interchange [DEC] EDIFACT EDI for Administration Commerce and Transport EDLC Ethernet Data Link Control EDLIN Editor (Line Text) EDP Electronic Data Processing EDPM Electronic Data Processing Machine EDSAC * Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer EDSI Enhanced Small Device Interface EDVAC * Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (First stored-program digital computer) EEC Extended Error Correction EEG Electroencephalogram EEM Extended Memory Management EEMS Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory EFA Extended File Attribute EFI Electromechanical Frequency Interference + Electronics For Imaging EFL Emitter Follower Logic EFTS Electronic Funds Transfer System EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter EIA Electronic Industries Association EIS Executive Information System EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture EL Electroluminescent (display) + Erase Line ELF Extremely Low Frequency ELS Entry Level System EM Electronic Mail + Expanded Memory EMA Enterprise Management Architecture E-MAIL Electronic Mail EMB Extended Memory Blocks [LIM/AST] EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility + Extended Math Coprocessor EMI Electromagnetic Interference .EML Electronic Mail (file name extension) EMM Expanded Memory Manager EMR Electro-Magnetic Radiation EMS Electronic Mail System + Electronic Message Service + Expanded Memory Specification [LIM] .ENC Encoded (file name extension) ENDS Ends Segment ENIAC * Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (First fully electronic digital computer) ENQ Enquiry EOA End of Address EOB End of Block EOC End of Conversion EOF End of File EOI End or Identify EOJ End of Job EOL End of Line + End of List EOM End of Message EOR Exclusive OR (Also XOR) EOS End of String EOT End Of Table + End of Tape (marker) + End of Text + End of Transmission EPL Effective Privilege Level EPLD Electrically Programmable Logic Device EPROM Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory + Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory .EPS Encapsulated PostScript (file name extension) EPSF Encapsulated PostScript Files ERLL Enhanced Run Length Limited EROM Erasable Read Only Memory ERR Error ES Extra Segment ESA European Space Agency ESC Escape ESD Electrostatic Discharge ESDI Enhanced Small Device Interface ESI Enhanced Serial Interface (specification) [Hayes] ESP Enhanced Serial Port [Hayes] ESS Electronic Switching System ESU Electro-Static Unit ETB End of Transmission Block ETPL Endorsed Tempest Products List ETS Econometric Time Series ETX End of Text EVGA Extended Video Graphics Array + Extended Video Graphics Adapter .EXE Executable (file name extension) EXE2BIN Program used to convert an (.EXE) file to binary format (.COM) file EXP Exponent EXT External EXTRN External Reference FAB Computer-Chip Fabrication Plant FAMOS Floating Gate Avalanche MOS FAP File Access Protocol FAT Fat Allocation Table FAX Facsimile .FAX Fax (file name extension) FCB File Control Block FCC Federal Communications Commission FCI Flux Changes per Inch FD Floppy Disk + Full Duplex FDC Floppy Disk Controller FDDI Fiber Digital Device Interface + Fiber Distributed Data Interface FDISK Fixed Disk FEFO First-Ended, First-Out FEP Front End Processor FET Field Effect Transistor FF Flip-Flop + Form Feed FFT Fast Fourier Transform FIFO First-In, First-Out FILO First-In, Last-Out FIP File Processor Buffering FIR Finite Impulse Response FLD Field FLOPS Floating Point Operations Per Second FMS Forms Management System FMT Format FNT Font FOCUS Forum of Control Data Users FOG First Osborne Group .FON Phone + Phone Directory (file name extensions) .FOR FORTRAN source code (file name extension) FORTH (Programming Language)(See HLL) FORTRAN Formula Translator (Programming Language)(See HLL) FOSE Federal Office Systems Exposition FOSSIL Fido/Opus/Seadog Standard Interface Layer FPGA Field Programmable Gate-Array FPLA Field Programmable Logic-Array FPP Fixed Path Protocol + Floating Point Processor FPS Frames Per Second FPU Floating Point Processor Unit FRAG Fragment + Fragmentation FRAM Ferroelectric Random-Access Memory FRED Frame Editor FRPI Flux Reversals Per Inch .FRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension) FSD File System Driver [OS/2] FSK Frequency Shift Keying F/T Full Time FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management FTP File Transfer Protocol FTS Federal Telecommunication System FUNC Function GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles GAL Generic Array Logic GB Gigabyte (1,000 megabytes) GCR Group Code Recording GDA Global Data Area GDDM Graphics Data Display Manager GDI Graphics Device Interface GDT Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing + Global Descriptor Table GEM Graphics Environment Manager (DRI Program) GEOS Graphic Environment Operating System [Geoworks] GET Get Execute Trigger GHZ Gigahertz .GIF Graphic Interchange Format (file name extension) GIGO Garbage In, Garbage Out GIS Geographical Information System GKS Graphical Kernal System G/L General Ledger GLM General Linear Models .GLY Glossary (file name extension) [Microsoft Word] GMT Greenwich Mean Time GND System Ground GOSIP Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile GP Gas Plasma + General Purpose GPI Graphics Programming Interface GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus GPSS * General Purpose Simulation Language GRE Graphics Engine .GRF Graph (file name extension) .GRP Group (file name extension) GUI Graphical User Interface GW-BASIC Gee Whiz BASIC .H Header (file name extension) [C] HAL Hard Array Logic + House Programmed Array Logic HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Priority (System) HD Hard Disk + High Density HDA Head Disk Assembly HDI Head to Disk Interference HDLC High-Level Data Link Control HDR Header HDSC High Density Signal Carrier [DEC] HDTV High Definition Television HDW Hardware HERC Hercules HEX Hexadecimal HGA Hercules Graphics Adapter HGCP Hercules Graphics Card Plus HH Hour HIL Human Interface Link [HP] HLCO High Low Close Open HLL High Level Language HLLAPI High Level Language Application Programming Interface .HLP Help (file name extension) HLQ High Level Qualifier HLT Halt HMA High Memory Area [Microsoft] HMOS High Density Metal Oxide Semiconductor + High Speed Metal Oxide Semiconductor HP Hewlett-Packard (Company) HPFS High-Performance File System HPG Hewlett-Packard Graphics HPGL Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language HPIB Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus HPPA Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture HPPI High Performance Parallel Interface HRIS Human Resource Information System HRG High Resolution Graphics HRMS Human Resource Management System HS High Speed HSC High Speed Channel HSP High Speed Printer HST High Speed Technology [U.S. Robotics] .HST History + Host (file name extensions) HSV Hue Saturation Value HUT Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope H/V Horizontal/Vertical HVP Horizontal & Vertical Position H/W Hardware HWCP Hardware Code Page HWD Height-Width-Depth .HYP Hyphenation (file name extension) HZ Hertz IAL * International Algebraic Language (ALGOL was first called IAL) IBC Instrument Bus Computer IBM International Business Machines (Corporation) IBM-GL IBM Graphics Language IC Input Circuit + Integrated Circuit + Interrupt Controller ICA Intra-application Communications Area ICAS Intel Communicating Applications Specifications ICCP Institute for the Certification of Computer Professionals ICE In-Circuit Emulator [Intel] ICL Interface Clear ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol [Novell] .ICO Icon (file name extension) ICP Integrated Channel Processor ICR Intelligent Character Recognition ID Identification + Identifier IDA Integrated Digital Access + Intelligent Disk Array + Intelligent Drive Array IDE Imbedded Drive Electronics + Integrated Development Environment [Borlund] + Integrated Drive Electronics + Intelligent Drive Electronics + Interactive Design and Engineering + Interface Design Enhancement IDIV Integer Divide IDMS Integrated Data Base Management System IDP Integrated Data Processing IDT Interrupt Descriptor Table .IDX Index (file name extension) IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers I/F Interface IFD Image File Directory IFS Installable File System [OS/2] IGA Integrated Graphics Array IGC Integrated Graphics Controller IIF Immediate IF IIR Immediate Impulse Response IMDS Image Data Stream (format) [IBM] IMG Image IMP Interface Message Processor IMS Information Management System + Intermediate Maintenance Standards IMUL Integer Multiply IN Input INC Increment .INF Information (file name extension) .INI Initialize (file name extension) INIT Initialize INS Input String INT Integer + Internal + Interrupt INTA Interrupt Acknowledge INTO Interrupt if Overflow occurs I/O Input/Output IOCS Input/Output Control System IOCTL Input/Output Control IOSGA Input/Output Support Gate Array IP Instruction Pointer + Internet Protocol IPC Instructions Per Clock + Interprocess Communication IPF Information Presentation Facility IPL Initial Program Load + Initial Program Loader IPL * Information Programming Language IPSE Integrated Project Support Environment IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange [Novell] IQL Interactive Query Language IRET Interrupt Return IRL Interactive Reader Language + Inter-Repeater Link IRLED Infrared Light Emitting Diode IRM Information Resource Management IRQ Interrupt Request IRX Information Retrieval Experiment IS Interrupt Status ISA Industry Standard Architecture ISAM Indexed Sequential-Access Method ISC Instruction Set Computer ISD Image Section Descriptor + Instructional Systems Design ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISI Internally Specified Index ISL Interactive System Language ISO International Standards Organization ISP Interrupt Status Port ISPF Interactive System Programming Facility ISR Information Storage and Retrieval + Interrupt Service Routines ITB Information Technology Branch + Intermediate Text Block ITC International Typeface Corporation ITU International Telecommunication Union ITX Intermediate Text Block IVIS Interactive Video Information System IVR Interactive Voice Response IVS Interactive Videodisk System IVT Interrupt Vector Table IV&V Independent Verification & Validation JA Jump Address + Jump if Above JAE Jump if Above or Equal JBE Jump if Below or Equal JC Jump if Carry set JCL Job Control Language JE Jump if Equal JEDEC Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council JEIDA Japanese Electronics Industry Development Association JES Job Entry System JG Jump if Greater JGE Jump if Greater or Equal JL Jump if Less JLE Jump if Less than or Equal to JMP Jump JNA Jump if Not Above JNAE Jump if Not Above or Equal JNB Jump if Not Below JNBE Jump if Not Below or Equal JNG Jump if Not Greater JNGE Jump if Not Greater or Equal .JNK Junk (file name extension) JNLE Jump if Not Less or Equal JNO Jump if No Overflow JNP Jump if No Parity JNS Jump if No Sign JPE Jump if Parity Even JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory JPO Jump if Parity Odd JS Jump if Sign JZ Jump if Zero JNZ Jump if Not Zero KB Keyboard + Kilobyte (1,024 bytes) KBD Keyboard (also KEYB) KBPS Kilo-Bytes Per Second KDT Key Definition Table KEYBBE Foreign language KEYBoard program - Belgium KEYBCF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Canadian-French KEYBDF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Denmark KEYBFR Foreign language KEYBoard program - France KEYBGR Foreign language KEYBoard program - Germany KEYBLA Foreign language KEYBoard program - Latin America KEYBNL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Netherlands KEYBNO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Norway KEYBPO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Portugal KEYBSF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-French KEYBSG Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-German KEYBSP Foreign language KEYBoard program - Spain KEYBSU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Finland KEYBSV Foreign language KEYBoard program - Sweden KEYBUK Foreign language KEYBoard program - United Kingdom KSR Keyboard Send Receive KRS Knowledge Retrieval System LALL Longest Allowed Lobe Length LAN Local Area Network LAPB Link Access Procedure Balanced (protocol) LAPD Link Access Procedure Direct (protocol) LAPM Link Access Procedure for Modems LAR Load Access Rights LAWN Local Area Wireless Network LBL Label LBR Librarian .LBR Library (file name extension) LBT Listen Before Talk LCC Leadless Chip Carrier LCD Liquid Crystal Display LCU Last Cluster Used LDA Logical Device Address LDC Lotus Development Corporation LDT Local Descriptor Table LE Less or Equal LEA Load Effective Address LED Light Emitting Diode LEM Language Extension Module .LET Letter (file name extension) LEX Lexicon LF Line Feed LFI Last File Indicator LFU Least Frequently Used LGDT Load Global Descriptor Table .LIB Library (file name extension) LICS Lotus International Character Set [LDC] LIDT Load Interrupt Descriptor Table LIFO Last In First Out LIM Lotus/Intel/Microsoft LIMS Library Information Management System LIPS Logical Interferences Per Second LISP List Processing (Language)(See HLL) LLC Logical Link Control LLDT Load Local Descriptor Table LMI Local Management Interface LMSW Load Machine Status Word LM/X LAN Manager for Unix LN Logarithm (Natural) LOC Loop On-Line Control LODSB Load String Byte LOG Logarithm (Base 10) LOGO (Programming Language)(See HLL) LOOPE Loop while Equal LOOPNE Loop while Not Equal LOOPNZ Loop while Not Zero LOOPZ Loop while Zero LORE Line Oriented Editor LPD Line Printer Daemon (protocol) [Berkley] LPI Lines Per Inch LPL Lotus Programming Language [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] LPM Lines Per Minute LPN Logical Page Number LPT Line Printer LPT1 First Parallel Printer Port LPT2 Second Parallel Printer Port LPT3 Third Parallel Printer Port LQ Letter Quality LRC Local Register Cache + Longitudinal Redundancy Check LRI Least Recently Loaded .LRS Language Resource (file name extension) [WordPerfect] LRU Least Recently Used LSA Line Sharing Adapter LSB Least Significant Bit LSC Least Significant Character LSD Least Significant Digit LSI Large Scale Integration LSL Load Segment Limit LST List .LST List (file name extension) LTR Letter + Load Task Register LU Logical Unit (Also LUN) LUT Lookup Table LZW Lempel-Ziv-Walsh (algorithm) MAC Medium Access Control .MAC MacPaint (file name extension) + Macro (file name extension) .MAI Mail (file name extension) MAN Manual + Metropolitan Area Network MAP Maintenance Analysis Procedures + Manufacturing Automation Protocol + Memory Allocation Map .MAP Linker Map (file name extension) MAPICS Manufacturing, Accounting and Production Information Control System [IBM] MASM Macro Assembler [Microsoft] MAU Media Access Unit + Multistation Access Unit MAX Maximum MB Megabyte (1,000 kilobytes) MBASIC Microsoft BASIC MBPS Megabytes Per Second MCA Micro Channel Architecture [IBM] MCB Memory Control Block MCGA Multicolor Graphics Array MCU Multi-Chip Unit [DEC] MD Make Directory + Monochrome Display MDA Monochrome Display Adapter MDI Multiple Document Interface MDIC Manchester Decoder and Interface Chip [AT&T] MDR Minimum Design Requirement MDY Month Day Year .ME Opening Information (file name extension) (As in READ.ME) MEB Memory Expansion Board MEG Megabyte .MEN Menu (file name extension) MFLOPS Million Floating Point Operations Per Second MFM Modified Frequency Modulation MFP Multifunction Peripheral MFS Magnetic Tape Field Search MFT Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks MGA Monochrome Graphics Adapter MGR Manager MHS Message Handling Service + Message Handling System MHZ Megahertz MICS Macro Interpretive Commands MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface MII Microsoft/IBM/Intel MIL Machine Interface Layer [Go Corporation] MIMD Multiple Instruction Multiple Data Stream (processor) MIN Minimum MIPS Million Instructions Per Second MIS Management Information System MISC Miscellaneous MIX Member Information Exchange MKDIR Make Directory ML Machine Language MM Minutes + Month MMC Matched Memory Cycle + Microcomputer Marketing Council MMU Memory Management Unit MNOS Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductor MNP Microcom Networking Protocol .MNU Menu (fine name extension) MO Magneto-Optical (disk drive) MODEM Modulator Demodulator MOHLL Machine Oriented High Level Language MOV Metal Oxide Varistor + Move MOVS Move String MOD Modem + Modulus MOS Metal Oxide Semiconductor MOSFET Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor MOV Move MOVS Move String MPC Multimedia Personal Computer MPCS Mission Planning and Control Station (Software) MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group MPP Massively Parallel Processing + Message Processing Program + Microcom Network Protocol [Microcom] MPR Multipart Repeater MPT Mean Repair Time MPU Microprocessor Unit MR Modem Ready MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRO Multi-Region Operation MRP Materials Requirement Planning MRPL Main Ring Path Length MS Memory System + Microsecond + Microsoft Corporation + Millisecond MSB Most Significant Bit MSD Mass Storage Device + Most Significant Digit MS-DOS Microsoft-Disk Operating System MSDR Multiplexed Streaming Data Request MSG Message .MSG Program Message (file name extension) MSI Medium Scale Integration MSL Map Specification Library .MSP Microsoft Paint (file name extension) [Microsoft] MSW Machine Status Word MTA Message Transfer Agent + Multiple Terminal Access MTBB Mean Time Between Breakdowns MTBF Mean Time Before Failure + Mean Time Between Failures MTBJ Mean Time Between Jams MTS Message Transfer Service + Multichannel Television Sound MTTF Mean Time To Failure MTTR Mean Time To Repair MUL Multiply MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System (Programming Language) MUX Multiplexer MVGA Monochrome Video Graphics Array MVS Multiple Virtual Storage MVT Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks NACD National Association of Computer Dealers NACS National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors NAE Not Above or Equal NAK Negative Acknowledgment NAPLPS North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax (graphics) NAS Network Application Support [DEC] NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASI NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface [Novell] NBE Not Below or Equal NBI Nothing But Initials NBS National Bureau of Standards NC No Carry + Numerical Control NCA Network Communications Adapter NCC Network Control Center NCGA National Computer Graphics Association NCIC National Crime Information Center NCMT * Numerical Control for Machine Tools NCP Network Control Processor + Network Control Program + Not Copy Protected NCR National Cash Register (Company) NCSI Network Communications Services Interface [Novell] NDEF Not to be Defined NDIS Network Driver Interface Specification NDP Numeric Data Processor NDRO Non-Destructive Read Out .NDX Index (file name extension) NEC Nippon Electric Company NEG Negative + Negate NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System [IBM] NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface [IBM] .NEW New Information (file name extension) NEWS NetWare Early Warning System [Frye Computer] NFF No Fault Found NFS Network File System NG No Good NGE Not Greater or Equal NHC National Hurricane Center NIC Network Interface Card + Numeric Intensive Computing NICAD Nickel Cadmium NID New Interactive Display [NEC] + Next ID NIPS Network I/Os Per Second NIST National Institute for Standards and Technology NJE Network Job Entry (protocol) [IBM] NL New Line NLE Not Less or Equal NLM NetWare Loadable Module NLQ Near Letter Quality NMI Non-Maskable Interrupt NMOS Negative Channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor NOP No Operation NOR Not Or NOS Network Operating System NPI Network Printer Interface NRZ Not Return to Zero NRZI Non Return to Zero Inverted NS Nanosecond + Network Supervisor + Non Stop NSA POLY National Security Agency Polygraph NSF National Science Foundation NT New Technology [Microsoft] NTF No Trouble Found NTSC National Television Standards Committee NUI Network User Identification + Network User Interface + Notebook User Interface [Go Corporation] NUL Dummy Device + No Device NV No Overflow NVM Non-Volatile Memory NVRAM Non-Volatile Random Access Memory OAG Official Airline Guide OAI Open Applications Interface OBJ Object OCL Operation Control Language + Operator Control Language OCR Optical Character Recognition ODA Office Document Architecture ODBMS Object-Oriented Database Management System ODI Open Datalink Interface [Novell] OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer OF Overflow Flag OFMT Output Format for Numbers OFS Output Field Separator OH Off Hook OIS Office Information Systems .OLD Old version (file name extension) OLE Object Linking and Embedding [Microsoft] OLMC Output Logic Macrocell OLTP On-Line Transaction Processing OMF Object Module Format [Microsoft] OMG Object Management Group OMNS Open Network Management System OMR Optical Mark Recognition OOL Object-Oriented Language OOPL Object-Oriented Programming Language OOPS Object Oriented Programming and Systems OOS Object-Oriented Systems + Off-line Operating Simulator OP Operation + Optical + Output OPC Optical Photoconductor OP CODE Operational Code OPD Operand OPM Operations Per Minute OPS Operations .OPT Options (file name extension) OPUS Octal Program Updating System ORACLE On-Line Inquiry and Report Generator (UNIX DB program) ORS Output Record Separator OS Operating System OS/2 Operating System Two [IBM] OSA Open System Architecture OS/E Operating System/Environment OSF Open Software Foundation OSI Open Systems Interconnection OTF Open Token Foundation .OUT Outlines (fine name extension) OUTS Output String OV Overflow .OVL Program Overlay (file name extension) .OVR Program Overlay (file name extension) PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange PAD Packet Assembler/Disassembler PADS Pen Application Development System [Slate Corporation] PAL Paradox Applications Language [Borlund] + Phase Alternate Line + Programmed Array Logic + Programming Assembly Language PALS Principles of the Alphabet Literacy System PAR Parallel PARA Paragraph PARC Palo Alto Research Center [XEROX] .PAS PASCAL source code (file name extension) PASCAL (Programming Language named for Blaise Pascal) .PAT Patch (file name extension) PBE Prompt By Example PBX Private Branch Exchange PC Personal Computer + Printed Circuit + Program Counter PCB Printed Circuit Board + Program Control Block PC-DOS Personal Computer - Disk Operating System (IBM version of MSDOS) PC-I/O Program Controlled I/O PCL Printer Command Language [HP] + Process Control Language PCM Pulse Code Modulation PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association PCS Patchable Control Store + Planning Control Sheet + Print Contrast Signal + Process Control Systems + Program Counter Store + Project Control System .PCT Picture (file name extension) .PCX Picture Image (file name extension) PD Public Domain PDF Program Development Facility .PDF Printer Description (file name extension)[Borlund,Lotus] PDL Page Description Language + Program Description Language + Program Design Language PDN Public Data Network PDP Progammable Data Processor + (DEC Computer System Designation, i.e. PDP-8, PDP-11) PDS Partitioned Data Set PDSS Post Development and Software Support .PDX Paradox files (file name extension) [Borlund] PE Parity Even + Protect Enable PEA Pocket Ethernet Adapter PEL Picture Element [IBM] PEP Packetized Ensemble Protocol [Telebit] PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique PES Positioning Error Signal PFR Power-Fail Restart PGA Pin Grid Array + Professional Graphics Adapter [IBM] PGDN Page Down .PGL Graphics (file name extension) [Hewlett-Packard] PGM Program .PGP ProGram Parameter (file name extension) [AutoCAD] PGUP Page Up PHIGS Programmers' Hierarchial Interactive Graphics Standards .PHO Phone List (file name extension) PI Program Interruption PIA Peripheral Interface Adapter PIC Priority Interrupt Controller + Program Interrupt Controller .PIC Graph (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] PID Process Identification Number PIF Program Information File PILOT Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching PIM Personal Information Manager PIN Personal Identification Number PIO Parallel Input/Output + Processor Input/Output + Programmed Input/Output PIP Picture In Picture + Programmable Interconnect Point PIPO Parallel In, Parallel Out PIT Programmable Interval Timer PIXEL Picture Element PL Plus PLA Programmable Logic-Array PLATO Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations PLC Programmable Logic Controller PLCC Plastic Leadless Chip Carrier PLD Programmable Logic Device PLL Phase Locked Loop .PLL Prelinked Library (file name extension) [Clipper] PL/M Programming Language for Micros PLV Production Level Video PL/1 * Programming Language One PM Presentation Manager + Preventative Maintenance PMMU Paged Memory Management Unit PMOS Positive Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor PO Parity Odd POL Problem Oriented Language POP Pop from Stack POPA Pop All Registers POPF Pop Flags POS Point Of Sale + Positive + Programmable Object Select POSIX Portable Oprating System Environment Standard [IEEE] POST Power-On Self Test POSTNET Postal Numeric Encoding Technique PPDS Personal Printer Data Stream [IBM] PPM Pages Per Minute .PRD Printer Driver (file name extension) [Word] .PRF Preferences (file name extension) [Grammatik IV] PROC Procedure PROG Program + Programmer PROLOG Programming In Logic (Programming Language)(See HLL) PROM Programmable Read Only Memory PRN Printer PPP Point-to-Point Protocol .PRS Printer (file name extension) [WordPerfect] PRTSC Print Screen .PS PostScript (file name extension) PS/2 Programming System 2 [IBM] PSC Product Service Center PSP Program Segment Prefix P-SRAM Pseudo-Static Random Access Memory PSW Program Status Word PT Page Table P/T Part Time PTD Parallel Transfer Disk Drive PUB Publication + Publish .PUB Publication (file name extension) [Ventura] PUSHA Push All Registers PUSHF Push Flags PVM Pass-through Virtual Machine (protocol) [IBM] PWB Printed Wire Board PWR Power .PX Primary Index (file name extension) [Paradox] QA Quality Assurance QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QBE Query By Example QBF Query by Form QC Quality Control QDOS Quick and Dirty Operating System .QDI Dictionary (file name extension) [Quicken] .QDT Data (file name extension) [Quicken] QFA Quick File Access QIC Quality Information Using Cycle Time [Hewlett-Packard] + Quarter-Inch Cartridge .QIF Quicken Interchange Format (file name extension) [Quicken] .QMT Memorized List (file name extension) [Quicken] .QNX Indexes to Data (file name extension) [Quicken] QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying RA Return Authorization RACF Resource Access Control Facility RAG Row Address Generator RAID Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks RALU Register Arithmetic Logic Unit RAM Random Access Memory RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter [Sierra] RAND Random RAS Random Access Storage + Reliability, Availability and Serviceability + Row Address Select RBBS Remote Bulletin Board System RCL Rotate Carry Left RCP Restore Cursor Position RCR Rotate Carry Right RCS Records Communications Switching System RD Receive Data R&D Research and Development RDB Receive Data Buffer RDCLK Received Timing Clock RDSR Receiver Data Service Request .REF Reference (file name extension) REG Register REGAL Rigid Epoxy Glass Acrylic Laminate REM Remark + Remote + Ring Error Monitor REN Rename REP Repeat REPE Repeat while Equal REPNE Repeat while Not Equal REPNZ Repeat while Not Zero REPZ Repeat while Zero REQ Request RES Reset + Resolution .RES Resource (file name extension) RET Resolution Enhancement Technology [HP] + Return REX Relocatable Executable RD Received Data + Remove Directory RDB Relational Data Base RDBMS Relational Data Base Management System RELSECT Relative Sector RF Radio Frequency RFP Request for Proposal RFS Remote File System RFT Revisable Form Text + Rich Text Format RFU Reserved For Future Use RGB Red-Green-Blue (color model) RIFF Resource Interschange File Format [Microsoft] RIME RelayNet International Message Exchange RIP Raster Image Processor + Routing Information Protocol [Novell] RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer RLE Run Length Encoded RLL Run Length Limited RLSD Received Line Signal Detected RLSI * Ridiculously Large-Scale Integration RM Reset Mode RMA Return Material Authorization + Return to Manufacturer Authorization RMDIR Remove Directory RMS Record Management Services + Root Mean Square RND Random R-O Read Only ROL Rotate Left ROM Read Only Memory ROR Rotate Right RPC Real Procedure Call + Remote Procedure Call RPG Report Program Generator (Programming Language) RPL Requested Privilege Level RPPROM Reprogrammable PROM RPT Repeat RPQ Request for Price Quotation RS Radio Shack + Request to Send + Recommended Standard (as in RS-232) [EIA] RSP Required Space Character RST Reset + Restart RSTS Resource Sharing Time Sharing [Digital] RSX Real Time Resource Sharing Executive RT Real Time + RISC Technology + Run Time RTAM Remote Terminal Access Method RTC Real-Time Clock RTL Register Transfer Language + Resistor Transistor Logic + Run Time Library RTM Response Time Monitor RTOS Real-Time Operating System RTS Request To Send RTTY Radio Teletypewriter (Communications) RTV Real Time Video R/W Read/Write RWM Read-Write Memory RX Receiver RXD Received Data SAA Systems Application Architecture [IBM] SAINT * Symbolic Automatic Integrator SAL Shift Arithmetic Left SAM Serial Access Memory + Sequential Access Method SAP Second Audio Program + Service Access Point [DEC] SAP * Symbolic Assembly Program SAR Shift Arithmetic Right + Successive Approximation Register SAS Sales Accounting System + Single Audio System .SAV Saved (file name extension) SBB Subtract With Borrow SBC Single-Board Computer SCAS Scan String SCB Subsystem Control Block [IBM] SCC Serial Communications Controllers + Synchronous Channel Check [IBM] SCD Standard Color Display SCF System Control Facility SCM Software Configuration Management SCO Santa Cruz Operation (Software Company) SCP Save Cursor Position + Subsystem Control Port + System Control Program SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier .SCR Script (file name extension) SCRN Screen (video display) SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface SD Send Data SDA Software Disk Array + Source Data Automation + System Display Architecture [Digital] .SDF Standard Data Format (file name extension) SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control SDK Software Developer's Kit [Microsoft] SDN Software Defined Network [AT&T] SDNS Secure Data Network Service SDR Streaming Data Request SDS Sysops Distribution System SD_STB Streaming Data Strobe [IBM] SEA Standard Extended Attribute [OS/2] SEAC * Name of first computer to use transistors, built by Standard Eastern Automating Computing SEC Single Error Correction SECAM Sequential Color And Memory SED Stream Editor SEG Segment SEL Select SEM Scanning Electron Microscope + Standard Electronic Module SER Serial .SET Driver Set (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] + Image Settings (file name extension) [Paradox] SEU Smallest Executable Unit SF Sign Flag SFQL Structured Full-text Query Language SFT System Fault Tolerance SFX Sound Effect(s) SGEN Signal Generator + System Generator SGDT Store Global Descriptor Table SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language SGR Set Graphics Rendition S/H Sample and Hold SHL Shift Logical Left SHR Shift Logical Right SI Source Index + System Information SID Station Identification [AT&T] SIDT Store Interrupt Descriptor Table SIG Special Interest Group SIGCAT Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications and Technology SIM Simulator SIMD Single Instruction Multiple Data Stream (processor) SIMM Single In-line Memory Module SIMULA Simulation (language) SIP Single In-line Package SIPO Serial In, Parallel Out SIPP Single In-line Pin Package SIT Special Information Tones SISO Serial In, Serial Out SLDT Store Local Descriptor Table SLMR Silly Little Modem Reader SLOSH Sea, Lake and Overland Surge from Hurricane (program) SLSI Super Large-Scale Integration SM Set Mode SMB Server Message Block (protocol) [MII] SMD Surface Mounted Device SMDS Switched Multimegabit Data Service SMI System Management Interrupts [Intel] SMIF Standard Mechanical Interface SMK Software Migration Kit [Microsoft] SMP Symbolic Manipulation Program SMPS Switching Mode Power Supply SMSW Store Machine Status Word SMT Surface-Mount Technology SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SMU System Management Utility SN Serial Number S/N Signal-to-Noise SNA Systems Network Architecture [IBM] SND Sound SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol SNOBOL String Oriented Symbolic Language (Progamming Language) SNP Serial Number/Password [Omen Technology] SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SOE Standard Operating Environment SOH Start of Heading SOL Simulation Oriented Language SOM Start of Message SOP Standard Operating Procedures SOS Silicon On Sapphire + Standards and Open Systems SOTA State Of The Art SP Stack Pointer + System Product SPA Software Publishers Association SPARC Scalable Processor Architecture SPC Small Peripheral Controller + Statistical Process Control SPCL Spectrum Cellular Corporation SPF System Programming Facility SPIKE Science Planning Intelligent Knowledge-Based Environment [STScI] SPL Spooler .SPL Spell Checker (file name extension) SPOOLING Simultaneous Peripheral Operations On Line SPS Standby Power System SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPT Sectors Per Track SPX Sequenced Packet Exchange [Novell] SQ Squeezed (files) SQL Structured Query Language SQRT Square Root SR Shift Register SRAM Shadow Random Access Memory + Static Random Access Memory SRO Sharable and Read Only SRQ Service Request SRR Serially Reusable Resource SS Stack Segment + Single Sided + Seconds SSEC * Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator [IBM] SSGA System Suppport Gate Array SSI Small Scale Integration SST Spread-Spectrum Technology STA Spanning Tree Algorithm STB Strobe STC Set Carry Flag STD Set Direction Flag + Standard STDA StreetTalk Directory Assistance [Banyan] STDAUX Standard Auxillary STDERR Standard Error STDIN Standard Input STDIO.H Standard Input/Output Header [C] STDOUT Standard Output STDPRN Standard Printer .STF Structured File (file name extension) [Lotus Agenda] STI Set Interrupt Flag STN Supertwist Nematic STOS Store String STP Signal Transfer Point STR Store Task Register + Synchronous Transmitter Receiver STRESS Structural Engineering System Solver (Programming Language) STRUDL Structural Design Language (Programming Language) STScI Space Telescope Science Institute STX Start of Text .STY Style (file name extension) [Ventura, Word, WordPerfect] SUB Subroutine + Substitute + Subtract .SUP Supplemental Dictionary (file name extension) [WordPerfect] S-VHS Super VHS S/W Software SYLK Symbolic Link .SYN Synonym (file name extension) SYNC Synchronous SYS System .SYS System Configuration (file name extension) + System Device Driver (file name extension) SYSGEN System Generator SYSLOG System Log SYSMOD System Modification SYSOP System Operator TAD Telephone Answering Device TAPCIS The Access Program for the CompuServe Information Service TASM Turbo Assembler [Borland] TAXI Transparent Asynchronous Tranceiver Interface TB Terabyte (1,000 gigabytes) T/B Top and Bottom TBBS The Bread Board System (BBS) .TBK Toolbook (file name extension) TCM Trellis-Coded Modulation TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol TD Transmit Data TDE Terminal Display Editor TDM Time Division Multiplexing TDMS Terminal Display Management System TDSR Transmitter Data Service Request TDR Time Domain Reflectometry TEC Tokyo Electronics Corporation TED Tiny Editor TEML Turbo Editor Macro Language [Borlund] TERMPWR Terminator Power TFEL Thin-Film Electroluminescent TFT Thin-Film Transistor .THD Thread (file name extension) THOR Tandy High-Performance Optical Recording .THS Thesaurus (file name extension) TID Target ID .TIF Tagged Image File (file name extension) TIFF Tagged Image File Format TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing TIP Terminal Interface Processor TLB Translation Lookaside Buffer TLU Table Lookup .TLX Telex (file name extension) TM Trademark TMP Temporary TN Twisted Nematic TOP Technical and Office Protocol TPC Transaction Processing Performance Council TPI Tracks Per Inch TPL Table Producing Language TPORT Twisted Pair Port Transceiver [AT&T] TPS Transaction Processing System TR Terminal Ready TRADIC * Transistorized Airborne Digital Computer (Name of first computer to be entirely transistorized) TRON The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus TS Top Secret TSB Termination Status Block TSO Time Sharing Option TSR Terminate and Stay Resident TSS Task State Segment + Time Sharing System TS/SI Top Secret/Sensitive Information .TST Printer Test (file name extension) [WordPerfect] TSTN Triple Supertwisted Nematic TTL Transistor-Transistor Logic TTS Transaction Tracking System TTY Teletype TUI Text-Based User Interface [WordPerfect] .TUT Tutorial (file name extension) TVI Television Interference TWX Teletypewriter Exchange Service TXD Transmitted Data TXT Text TXT2STF Text To Structured File [Lotus Agenda] UA User Agent + User Area UAE Unrecoverable Application Error UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter UCL Universal Communications Language UDP User Datagram Protocol [Novell] UG User Group UI Unix International UID User Identifier UL Upload ULA Uncommitted Logic Array ULSI Ultra Large Scale Integration UMB Upper Memory Block [LIM/AST] UNCOL Universal Computed Oriented Language UNICOM Universal Integrated Communication (System) UNICOS Universal Compiler FORTRAN compatible UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer UNIX (AT&T Bell Laboratories Operating System) UNMA Unified Network Management Architecture UPC Universal Product Code UPL User Program Language UPM User Profile Management [IBM] UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply + Uninterruptible Power System USART Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous Reciever/Transmitter USERID User Identification USQ Unsqueezed (files) USRT Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter USSA User Supported Software Association (United Kingdom) UT User Terminal UTC Coordinated Universal Time UTI Universal Text Interchange UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair UUCP Unix-To-Unix Copy UUI User-To-User Information [AT&T] UV Ultraviolet VA Virtual Address VAD Value Added Dealer VADD Value Added Disk Driver VAL Value + Voice Application Language .VAL Validity Checks (file name extension) [Paradox] VAM Virtual Access Method VAN Value Added Network VAP Value Added Processes VAR Value Added Reseller + Value Added Retailer + Variable VAX Virtual Address Extension (Computer System Designation) [DEC] VB Variable Block VCPI Virtual Control Program Interface VCR Video Cassette Recorder VDISK Virtual Disk VDS Virtual DMA Services VDT Video Display Terminal VDU Video Display Unit + Visual Display Unit VEGA Video-7 Enhanced Graphics Adapter [Video-7, Inc.] VER Verify VERR Verify Read Access VERW Verify Write Access VESA Video Electronics Standards Association VFD Vacuum Fluorescent Display VGA Video Graphics Array VGC Video Graphics Controller VHS Very High Speed + Virtual Host Storage VHSIC Very High Speed Integrated Circuit VIO Video Input/Output + Virtual Input/Output VINES Virtual Network Operating System [Banyan] VIP Variable Information Processing VIPER Verifiable Integrated Processor for Enhanced Reliability VIS Voice Information System VLF Very Low Frequency VLIW Very Long Instruction Word (machine) VLSI Very Large Scale Integration VLSIPS Very Large Scale Immobilized Polymer Synthesis VLT Variable List Table VM Virtual Machine VMM Virtual Memory Manager [Clipper] VMOS Vertical MOS VMS Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System VMT Virtual Memory Technique VOL Volume VOM Volt Ohm Meter VOS Verbal Operating System VR Voltage Regulator VRAM Video Random Access Memory VROOMM Virtual Real-time Object Oriented Memory Manager [Borlund] .VRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension) VRU Voice Response Unit VS Virtual Storage VSAM Virtual Storage Access Method VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal VSE Virtual Storage Extended VSF Vertical Scanning Frequency VSLI Very Large Scale Integration VSM Virtual Storage Management VSOS Virtual Storage Operating System VSYNC Vertical Sync VTAM Virtual Telecommunications Access Method [IBM] VUI Video User Interface VMS Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System W/ With WAITS Wide-Area Informtion Transfer System WAN Wide Area Network WATS Wide Area Telecommunications Service WC Word Count WELL Whole Earth Lectronic Link (BBS) WGS Work Group System .WKB Workbook (file name extension) [WordPerfect] .WKE Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] .WKQ Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU] .WKS Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] .WKZ Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU] .WK1 Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] .WMF Windows Metafile (file name extension) [Microsoft] WNIC Wide-Area Network Interface Co-Processor WNIM Wide-Area Network Interface Module W/O Without WORM Write Once, Read Many WP WordPerfect + Word Processing + Write Protected .WPG Graphics (file name extension) [WordPerfect] WPHD Write-Protect Hardd Disk .WPK Keyboard (file name extension) [WordPerfect] WPM Words Per Minute .WPM Macro (file name extension) [WordPerfect] .WQ1 Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU] .WQ! Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU] WS WordStar + Workstation WT Write Through WYSBYGI What You See Before You Get It WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get XA Extended Architecture + Extended Attribute XCHG Exchange XCMD External Command XDR External Data Representation XFCN External Function XGA Extended Graphics Array [IBM] XID Exchange Identifier XIOS Extended Input/Output System XLAT Translate XMIT Transmit XMM Extended Memory Manager [LIM/AST] XMS Extended Memory Specification [LIM/AST] XNS Xerox Network System (protocol) XOR Exclusive OR (Also EOR) XSMD Extended Storage Module Drive (interface) XTAL Crystal XTCLK External Transmit Clock YAM Yet Another Modem [Omen Technology] ZBR Zone Bit Recording Z-CAV Zoned Constant Angular Velocity ZIP Zone Improvement Plan (ZIPcode) .ZIP Compressed File (file name extension) [PKWare] .ZOO Compressed File (file name extension) [Dhesi] ZSL Zero Slot LAN .$$$ Temporary File (file name extension) UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU UU UU UU BABEL: A LISTING OF UU UU COMPUTER ORIENTED ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS UU UU UU UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Version 92A UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Copyright (c) 1989-1992 Irving Kind All Rights Reserved c/o K & D, One Church Lane, Baltimore, MD 21208 Jan 1992 version = BABEL92A Jan 1993 version = BABEL93A May 1992 version = BABEL92B May 1993 version = BABEL93B Sep 1992 version = BABEL92C Sep 1993 version = BABEL93C NOTE 1: (To insure that you will receive the latest version) On receipt of your disk and disk mailer stamped with return postage, the following procedure is followed: If received during Jan, Feb or Mar; the Jan version will be sent to you promptly. If received during Apr, your disk will be held until the May version is issued. If received during May, Jun or Jul; the May version will be sent to you promptly. If received during Aug, your disk will be held until the Sep version is issued. If received during Sep, Oct or Nov; the Sep version will be sent to you promptly. If received during Dec, your disk will be held until the Jan version is issued. NOTE 2: Any of these disk sizes may be sent for updates: 5-1/4" DD or HD 3-1/2" DD or HD

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